【発表者】Vivek Dangi (Assistant Professor, Dept. of History, All India Jat Heroes Memorial College, Rohtak, Haryana）
Hitoshi Endo (Project Researcher, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature)
【発表題目】”Traditional Agriculture tools of Haryana, a record of ordinary people’s life”
Agriculture was the paramount factor which forced primitive man to settle at selected spots on fertile land near perennial sources of water. The urge to fulfill the need of the growing population coupled with the desire to have private property led to surplus production. This was possible with the help of animal power and agricultural tools. Agricultural tools and techniques were changed and transformed with the time. Present study was undertaken to identify various traditional agricultural tools and techniques used for agriculture operations by farmers of Haryana, India. Some agricultural tools such as plough, sickle, seed drill etc. are as old as Harappan Civilization (2500 B.C.E.). Use of agricultural tools and their types depend on various factors viz. soil texture, agricultural terrain and types of crops. All these factors relates to the environment. Traditional agricultural tools were economical in terms of labour, money, time saving and are operateable easily without much special skill. These tools were made up of locally available material like wood, stone etc. A detailed survey to document traditional agricultural tools was conducted in various districts of south Haryana viz. Rohtak, Bhiwani, Jhajjar, Rewari, Mohindergarh and Sisra. Traditional tools used to be indispensable part of ordinary people but of late these tools have been replaced by heavy machinery to a great extent adversely effecting the land, tool and man relationship resulting in the Socio-Economic change.
Heavy machinery and tools are not useful in every terrain, type of climate and environment. In order to minimize the ill effects, we need to study indigenous tools and implements are considered successful because these are economical, feasible and sustainable. These are easy to make and easily transportable from one place to another. These tools can be upgraded by farmers to be more efficient and cost effective. By using the state of art knowledge, these traditional implements need to be standardized, keeping in mind the economy of rural poor. In order to record these tools this study was conducted as these are getting extinct. The posterity shall not be in a position to see these implements if these are not placed in museum and recorded. With these objectives in mind, interview with farmers of various villages were conducted. On the basis of these interviews, the present researcher attempted to study not only the farmers lives but also the changes brought in their lives due to use of new techniques, tools, chemical fertilizer and pesticides etc. Here we have confined our studies to the tools and technology and in future effects of other factors shall be dealt.